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Table of contents Chapter 13 13.8 Derived adverbs

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Chapter 13: Adverbs and Comparative

   13.8 Derived adverbs
          I
        II
      III
       IV
Adjective as alternative to adverb
Adjective instead of adverb
Different meaning of adjective and adverb
Adverbial clauses as substitute for adverbs

  13.8 Derived adverbs

Like in English many adverbs can be formed by using an ending. In English it is -ly. In Spanish it is -mente appended to the feminine form of the adjective. If there is no special feminine form because the adjective ends on an e the ending -mente is appended to this e.

masculine
feminine
adverb
meaning
generoso
cuidadoso
rápido
concienzudo
tranquilo
lento
lamentable
mortal
feliz
alegre
difícil
fuerte
  probable
generosa
cuidadosa
rápida
concienzuda
tranquila
lenta
lamentable
mortal
feliz
alegre
difícil
fuerte
probable
generosamente
cuidadosamente
rápidamente
concienzudamente
tranquilamente
lentamente
lamentablemente
mortalmente
felizmente
alegremente
difícilmente
fuertemente
probablemente
generously
carefully
fast
consciously
calmly
slowly
unfortunately
deadly
luckily
happily
with difficulty
strongly
probably

  Example
Después de haber bebido tranquilamente su cerveza, se levantó y comenzó a cantar.
= After having drunk calmly his beer he got up and began to sing.
Rápidamente se divulgó el rumor de que se había muerto.
= The rumour that he had died spread fast.
Tocaron fuertemente a la puerta, tan fuerte que me desperté.
= It was knocked at the door loudly, so loud that I woke up.
Probablemente me lo dice si se lo pregunto.
= Probably he tells me if I ask him

  I. Adjective as alternative to adverb

Some adjectives are used as adverbs even though a suitable adverb does exist. In these cases the masculine form of the adjective is used as adverb. If you are unsure which one to use have search at Google. Usually the adverbial form is more commonly used.

Él corre rápido. <=> Corre rápidamente.
= He runs fast. (rapidly)
A veces la vida nos pega duramente. <=> A veces la vida nos pega duro.
= Sometimes life sucks.

In English this phenomenon has a rule, that with certain verbs the adjective is used instead of the adverb.
It tastes good (not It tastes well!)
He is quick (not He is quickly!)

  II. Adjective instead of an adverb
Sometimes you'll find cases where the masculine form of the adjective has to be used because there is no adverb and you can't create it with -mente.

Lo compré muy barato en la tienda de al lado.
= I bought it cheaply in the shop next door.
incorrect: Lo compré baratamente en la tienda de al lado.
Tenía que trabajar duro para tener éxito.
= He worked hard (not hardly!!) to have success.
incorrect: Tenía que trabajar duramente para tener éxito.
Lo has comprado demasiado caro.
= You have bought this too expensively.
incorrect: Lo has comprado demasiado caramente.

  III. Different meanings of adjective and adverbs
Se viste muy raro.= He dresses strangely.
Se viste raramente.= He dresses rarely.
Trabaja muy preciso.= He works very exact.
Precisamente hoy trabaja.= Today of all days he works.

  IV. Adverbial clauses as substitute of adverbs
Some adverbs are often substituted by adverbial clauses

Se viste elegantemente.
<=>
Se viste con elegancia.
= He dresses elegantly<=> He dresses with elegance.
Bebió un zumo de naranja silenciosamente.
<=>
Bebió un zumo de naranja en silencio.
= He drank silently an orange juice. <=> He drank an orange juice in silence.
Nos íbamos frequentemente al bar que está en frente de mi casa.
<=>
Nos ibamos con frecuencia al bar que está en frente de mi casa.
= We often went to the bar that was across the street opposite of my home. <=> We went with frequency to the bar that was across the street opposite of my home.
Hicimos el trabajo cuidadosamente.
<=>
Hicimos el trabajo con cuidado.
= We did the work carefully. <=> We did the work with care.
Se despidió cariñosamente.
<=>
Se despidió con cariño.
= They said goodbye tenderly. <=> They said goodbye with tenderness.
Indudablemente lo hizo mal.
<=>
Sin duda lo hizo mal.
= Doubtlessly he did it badly. <=> Without doubt he did it badly.
Generalmente no me gustan los mejillones.
<=>
En general no me gustan los mejillones.
= Generally I do not like mussels. <=> In general I do not like mussels.

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