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Chapter 20: Modal verbs (Auxiliaries)

  20.19 Summary overall - modal verbs
We have seen it's not too different from the English use. Here just a short summary to keep in mind.

  Modal verbs an overview
verb example Spanish

example

  OBLIGATION
  instruction or advise
must
You must read the book.
tener que

Tienes que leer el libro.
  prohibition
must not
You must not drink this.
no deber
No debes que beberlo.
  external obligation
  no freedom of choice
  logical consequence
  instruction / attitude
to have to
You have to work more if you want to buy the car.
You have to go to school.
The judge says he has to go to jail.

You have to meet her she will fascinate you!!
tener que
Tienes que trabajar más, si quieres comprar el coche.
Tienes que ir a la escuela.
El juez dijo que tiene que irse a la cárcel.
Tienes que conocerlo, te va a fascinar.
  attitude
  moral obligation / moral principles
  room for manoeuvre
  offer
  proposition
  to ask for instruction
shall You shall meet her, she will fascinate you!!
You shall honour your parents.
He shall go to Spain, but I think he goes to Italy.
Shall I put the plates here?
Shall I help you?
Shall we go to the movies?
deber
Debes conocerlo, te va a fascinar.

Debes venerar a tus padres.
Debe ir a España, pero creo que se va a Italia.
Los platos los pongo aquí?
Te ayudo?
Vamos al cine.
shall not
I shall not go to hell.
He shall not go to Spain, but I think he goes anyway.

no deber
No debo ir al infierno.
No debe ir a España pero creo que lo hace.
  duty
  assumption
  advise
should
I should go to work now.

He should know.
You should be careful.
debería, tendría (in conjuntivo both is used)
Debería/tendría que ir a trabajo ahora.
Debería/tendría que saberlo.
Deberías/tendrías que ser cuidado.
should not
You should not stay here.

He should not yet be arrived.
You should not worry so much.
no debería
No deberías/tendrías quedarte aquí.
No debería haber llegado ya
No deberías/tendrías preocuparte.
  = should / shall
to ought to (AE)
I ought (not) to go to work now.

He ought (not) be arrived.
You ought (not) to be careful.

(no) debería
(No) Debería/tendría ir a trabajo ahora.
(No) Debería/tendría que saberlo.
(No) Deberías/tendrías ser cuidado.
  affirmative
need to
I need to go home
hace falta que
Hace falta que me vaya a mí casa.
  not necessary to
need not to
He needn't do it but he did it anyway.
no hace falta que
No hacía falta que lo hizo pero lo hizo.
have not to
I do not have to swim.
I do not have to tell it to her.
He doesn't have to do it if he doesn't want to."
no tener que
No tengo que nadar.
No tengo que decírselo.
No tiene que hacerlo si no quiere.
  PERMISSION / ABILITY
  ability
  possibility
  informal permission
can /
to be able to
He can / could / is able to drive a car.
poder / saber
Puede conducir un coche. (possibility)
Sabe conducir un coche. (learnt ability)
could
He can / could / is able to go to Madrid.
poder Puede ir a Madrid.
to be able to
You can / could go and play in your room.
poder Puedes ir a tu habitación y jugar.
  permission
  possibility
  suggestion
may
May I leave the room?
He may study geology.
She may know this. / Maybe she knows.
poder
Puedo salir de la habitación?
Puede estudiar geología.
Puede ser que lo sepa.
might
Might I leave the room?
He might study geology.
She might know it. / Might be that she knows.
podría (poder conjuntivo)
Podría salir de la habitación?
Podría estudiar geología.
Podría ser que lo sepa.
  forming future
  polite "order"
will
They will go to Spain next year.
Will you go home now?
futuro
imperativo
Iran a España el año que viene.
Vete a tu casa.
  refusal
will not He won't do it, whatever you say.
indicativo negativo
No importa lo que le digas, no lo hará.
  request
would
Would you pass the butter?
imperativo
Dame la mantequilla, por favour.
  refusal in the past
would not
He wouldn't do it, whatever we said.
indicativo negativo No importa lo que le digamos, no lo hará.
  OTHERS
  desire
to want to
He wants to go to Barcelona.
querer
Quiere irse a Barcelona.
  habit
to use to

She used to go to Barcelona every year
solir

Solía ir en el autobus.
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