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Table of contents Chapter 20 20.2.2 No freedom of choice

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Chapter 20: Modal verbs (Auxiliaries)

  20.2.2 No freedom of choice

If you have a look at the following sentences, there is actually no question anymore which one is the right one.

  Examples:

correct: He was so upset that he had to cool his aggressions.
incorrect: He was so upset that he should cool his aggressions.

The person who was so upset had no other choice than to cool his agression. There was a zero degree of freedom of choice. Therefore it had to (!!) be have to (or must).

  More examples of this type

correct: She was so enraged that she had to cry.
incorrect: She was so enraged that she should cry.

correct: The car was broken down so we had to leave it behind.
incorrect: The car was broken down so we should leave it behind.

correct: He didn't find another possibility. He had to do it.
incorrect: He didn't find another possibility. He had to do it.

The same we find in Spanish

  Example

Si quieres pasar el examen, tienes que estudiar más.
= If you want to pass the exam, you have to study more
Se quebró una pierna asi que tuvo que quedarse en casa.
= He broke a leg, therefore he had to stay home.
Hizo tanto frío que incluso los osos tuvieron que quedarse en su cueva.
= It was so cold that even the bears had to stay in their cave.
Cuando se le acabó el dinero tuvo que abandonar el proyecto.
= When the money was used up, he had to stop the project.
Si quieres ser más delgado tienes que comer menos.
= If you want to be slimmer, you have to eat less.
Estuvo tan cansado que tuvo que echarse a la cama.
= He was so tired that he had to lay down in bed.


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