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Table of contents Chapter 20 20.3.4 Demanding person - powerful authority

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Chapter 20: Modal verbs (Auxiliaries)

  20.3.4 Demanding person is a powerful authority

As we had seen before to have to is used only when there is no alternative, there is no chance of doing something else than to do as requested.

  Example law

I have to pay taxes.
not: I shall pay taxes.


  Example natural forces

It was so hot that all animals had to suffer from thirst.
not: It was so hot that all animals should suffer from thirst.

And if the same person is once a real powerful authority and in another case not so powerful we come to something like this. This applies also exactly to the Spanish use.

  Two more examples

El juez dijo, que tiene que ir a la cárcel por cinco años.
= The judge said that he has to go to jail for five years.

El juez dijo, que su esposa no debe gastar tanto dinero en ropa que nunca viste.
= The judge said that his wife should not spend so much money in clothes she never wears.


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